Smoking and Diabetes

June 5th, 2009 healthwiki Diabetes 0

The harmful effects of smoking. Studies show that smokers are five times more likely than that of the nonsmokers to have gum disease. For smokers with diabetes, the risk is even greater. If you are a smoker, diabetic and age 45 or order, you are 20 times more likely than a person without these risk factors to get severe gum disease.

Smoking increases your risk of getting type 2 diabetes
Some recent research shows there is a significant relationship between diabetes and smoking. The more you smoke, the more chance you have of getting diabetes. If you smoke 16 to 25 cigarettes a day, your risk for type 2 diabetes is 3 times greater than a non-smoker. When you quite smoking, your risk decreases during the years that follow.

Smoking affects the way insulin works in your body
In type 2 diabetes, the body does not respond to insulin made by the pancreas. Insulin helps blood glucose enter into the cells for fuel. When you smoke, your body is less able to respond to insulin. When your body resists insulin, your glucose level increase in the blood. Resistance does not start to reverse until you do not smoke for 10 to 12 hours.

Smoking makes it harder to control your diabetes
Studies show that smokers have poorer glucose control than non-smokers do. Smokers who quit have the same blood glucose control as non-smokers. When you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, glucose control is very important. The HbA1c test checks how well you control your glucose level over 3 months. The goal is to keep your A1c at 7 percent or less. When you have diabetes and you smoke, your A1c level increases. If you quit smoking, your A1c level may decrease to the same level as a non-smokers.

Smoking increases your risk for getting other problems from diabetes
When you have diabetes and smoking habit, your chances are greater for getting other health problems form diabetes — complications. You can get serious eye problems, kidney problems, nerve problems, heart and blood vessel disease and so on.

Even for people who do not have diabetes but smoke, the risk of getting other health problems is greater. The more and the longer you smoke, the more your risk increases. Smoking and diabetes together greatly increase the danger of getting complications. To lower your risk, you must control your glucose levels and quit smoking. Diabetic people will be benefitted in many ways when they quit smoking.

Experts’ views
All smokers need stop smoking in a clear, strong and personalised manner. Ask every tobacco user if s/he is willing to make and attempt to stop smoking at this time (within the next 30 days for example).

Assist all people with smoking cessation. For those unwilling to attempt cessation at this time, stress the 5 R’s.

Relevance: provide individualised information on the hazards of smoking.

Risks: Emphasise the increased risks of heart disease and diabetes complications arising from the combination of smoking and diabetes.

Rewards: Review benefits of smoking cessation.

Roadblocks: Assure people of your willingness to assist in their efforts to stop smoking.

Repetition: Review people’s thoughts about cessation during their following visit.

Key messages
* Review major steps of smoking cessation

* Set a date to stop smoking

* Identify likely relapse triggers and make specific plans for coping with them before stopping smoking

* Assess for nicotine replacement therapy

* Discuss any concerns about weight gain and other concerns related to diabetes

* Make referral for additional smoking cessation support, prescribe nicotine replacement, provide self-help materials, or otherwise assist in a specific plan

* Arrange for ongoing contact

* Schedule follow-up contact either in person or via telephone

* Follow-up contact should occur soon after the date set to stop smoking, preferably within the first week.

Protected From Cervical Cancer

January 10th, 2009 healthwiki Women's Health 0

Cervical cancer is cancer of the cervix — the lower part of the uterus, which opens into the vagina. Cervical cancer is the second-most-common type of cancer that strikes women worldwide after breast cancer.

It is estimated that nearly 250,000 deaths are associated with cervical cancer globally every year. According to the World Health Organisation, there were 500,000 new cases of cervical cancer in 2005.

The tragedy of cervical cancer is that it often strikes when a woman is still young. It tends to happen in women between the age of 35 and 55 years. She may be trying to raise her family or may be she has not had children yet.

A population-based survey reported that the coverage of cervical cancer screening in Bangladesh is less than 1%. Older and poor women are at the highest risk of developing cervical cancer in Bangladesh.

Cause of cervical cancer
99% of cervical cancers are caused by Human Papillomavirus (HPV), which spreads through sexual contact. There are over 100 different types of HPV. The majorities of viruses are considered Low Risk and do not cause cervical cancer. However, HPV-16 and HPV-18 often referred to as High Risk HPV types are associated with more than 70% of cervical cancer cases.

The body’s immune system usually fights off the infection as a result most women never suffer from HPV infection. However, in some women the infection does not go away. When the virus remains active in the body for a long period of time, cervical cells begin to change and the risk of cervical cancer increases.

There are other factors can increase the risk that an HPV infection develops into cervical cancer:

* Sexual intercourse at an early age

* Multiple sexual partners

* Multiple full-term pregnancies

* Chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, or herpes simplex virus type 2 infection

* Cigarette smoking

* Use of oral contraceptives for a long period of time

* Weakened immune system or HIV infection • Mother or sister with a history of cervical cancer

* Low levels of folic acid (a type of Vitamin B)

Cervical cancer is usually a slow-growing cancer, typically takes 10-15 years before invasive cancer develops. Once cervical cells begin to change, it first becomes “pre-cancerous” a condition also known as “dysplasia” or Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN).

In the early stages cervical cancer often causes no symptoms. However, when symptoms do occur, they may include:

* Bleeding between regular menstrual periods

* Bleeding after sexual intercourse

* Bleeding after douching

* Bleeding after a pelvic exam

* Pelvic pain not related to your menstrual cycle

* Heavy or unusual discharge that may be watery, thick, and possibly have a foul odor

* Increased urinary frequency

* Pain during urination

These symptoms can be caused by cervical cancer, or by a number of serious conditions, and should be evaluated promptly by a medical professional.

Cervical cancer is diagnosed through a series of examinations. A Pap test is most commonly used to screen and detect the possibility of a cervical cancer or dysplasia.

An HPV DNA test is used to determine the high-risk strains of HPV infection, which is most likely to lead to cervical cancer. If an abnormality is found during a Pap and HPV DNA tests, a Colposcopy is performed.

Finally, a Cone biopsy is performed by removing a cone-shaped piece of tissue from the cervix for microscopic examination. A pathologist examines the sample for confirmation of precancer or cancer cells.

Options for treating cervical cancer depend predominantly on the stage of disease — the size of the tumor, the depth of invasion, and whether the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

Other factors that are considered are the patient’s age and if she wishes to have children. The primary forms of treatment are surgery or combined radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

* Surgery to remove the uterus

* Radiation therapy to kill the cancer cells

* Chemotherapy to stop the growth of cancer cells

The vaccine is now available for prevention of HPV infection. Studies show that women who receive cervical cancer vaccine between the ages of 15 and 25 have 100% protection against the HPV-16 and HPV-18.

The vaccine is given in three shots over six-months. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended this vaccine for girl’s ages 11 to 12, although it may be used in girls as young as age 9.

Ideally, females should get the vaccine before they are sexually active. The vaccine is also recommended for 13-26 year-old girls who have not yet received or completed the vaccine series. This allows a girls immune system to be activated before she encounters HPV. Vaccinating at this age also allows developing the highest antibody levels. The higher the antibody levels the greater the protection.

Abu Siddiqui…

The New Year Health Guide For 2009

January 8th, 2009 healthwiki Health Resources 0

The New Year has just started. It is the perfect time for a fresh start. Many people are planning to make resolutions in health for the New Year to improve their life such as losing weight, exercising more, getting more organised or quitting smoking. But none of these will be effective without a proper health checklist, something that prioritises the important things you need to do this year, this decade and for the rest of your life. All you require is a roadmap to hit the highway to better health. The following things can help you to make 2009 your year of good health.

Control your weight
Measure your height and weight to figure out your body mass index (BMI). Or just measure your waist. Abdominal fat is a major health hazard for men. Risk mounts with waist sizes above 37.5 inches, and measurements of 40 inches and above are truly dangerous. Eat fewer calories and burn up more in exercise.

Eat right
Cut down on saturated fat and cholesterol by limiting red meat, whole-fat dairy products and egg yolk. Avoid fats in stick margarine, fried foods and many snack and junk foods. Eat lots of fishes. Load up on whole-grain products instead of refined grains and simple sugars. Eat lots of fruits and vegetables. Cut down on sodium (salt). And if you need to shed excess pounds, reduce your portion size, avoid calorie-dense foods, and cut your overall caloric intake.

Avoid tobacco
If you are a smoker, quitting is your first priority. Counselling and support groups can help in this regard. With physician’s advice you can use nicotine-replacement therapy or prescription medications, such as bupropion and varenicline (drugs used for cessation of smoking). Even if you do not smoke, you should resolve to help a buddy or relative who needs to kick the habit. And remember to protect yourself and your family by steering clear of secondhand smoke.

Exercise regularly
You do not have to hit the gym or train for a marathon to benefit from exercise. Build physical activity into your daily schedule. Take the stairs, do household chores, play active games with your kids. Above all, walk whenever and wherever you can. Aim for at least 30 minutes of walking a day, either all at once or in smaller chunks. If you have diseases like asthma that do not allow more exercise or need special precaution then consult with your physician.

Reduce stress
Figure out what makes you tense and then try to change the things you can control. Talk over your problems and worries. Get enough sleep. Do things that are fun, especially with people you like. Avoid TV broadcasts and tabloids. Exercise to burn off stress. Avoid caffeine if it makes you jittery. Do not try to medicate yourself with alcohol or drugs. Learn to appreciate and enjoy life’s many little pleasures. Try relaxation techniques such as meditation and deep breathing. Talk to your doctor if you need more help.

Protect yourself from infection
Be sure your immunisations are up to date. If you are ill, protect others by avoiding crowds and coughing into a tissue. Wash your hands often, and use an alcohol-based hand rub. Protect yourself from sexually transmitted diseases.

Prevent accidents and injuries
Many result from careless behavior. Wear seatbelts and drive defensively. Check your house for clutter and cords that might trip you up. Hold the handrail when walking stairs.

Avoid environmental hazards
These include air pollution, pesticides and toxins, contaminated food and radiation. Remember that excessive sunlight is toxic to your skin. These include air pollution, pesticides and toxins, contaminated food and radiation. Remember that excessive sunlight is toxic to your skin.

Get good medical care
See your doctor regularly. Know your numbers cholesterol, blood pressure, blood sugar and weight. Take your medication as directed. Keep a record of your major illnesses and tests, your medications, and your allergies. Listen to your body and let your doctor know if you do not feel well.

If it seems like a lot, it is. But there are 12 months in 2009 and only 10 resolutions. Pick the ones you need most, change slowly, and get your family and friends to sign on to your resolutions for health. Above all, do not give up if you slip from time to time. Your goal is not perfection, but health. Take the long view and keep plugging away. Any progress you make in 2009 will give you a leg up for 2010 and beyond. If you make 2009 your health year, it will be a happy new year.