Some Women Unaware of Risks of Delaying Motherhood

December 1st, 2008 admin Pregnancy 0

Many women may not be fully aware of the potential consequences of waiting until later in life to have a baby, a UK study suggests.

The study, of 724 women who were either pregnant or having trouble getting pregnant, found that nearly all were aware that age affects the chances of conceiving. However, they often did not know that older age increases the risk of certain pregnancy complications, and many had too much faith in the success of in-vitro fertilisation (IVF).

The decision to delay childbirth is a complex and personal one, the researchers note in a report in the journal Fertility & Sterility.

The point, they say, is that women should be fully aware of all the possible benefits and risks of their decision.

“The results of this and other studies suggest that women should be provided with the appropriate information on the possible outcomes of a decision to delay motherhood,” write Dr. Abha Maheshwari and colleagues at the University of Aberdeen in England.

When it came to IVF, Maheshwari’s team found that women tended to be overly optimistic about its success rates.

Only 53 percent of women with fertility problems knew that the chances of conceiving via IVF decline between the ages of 30 and 40. What’s more, 85 percent of them thought that fertility treatment can “overcome the effect of age.”

In reality, the researchers note, only 25 percent to 30 percent of women in their 20s and 30s give birth after IVF treatment. Among women older than 40, the success rate is closer to 10 percent.

Yet many people may not realise that IVF frequently fails, Maheshwari’s team writes — possibly because much of what they hear about IVF comes in the form of media stories on older women who have successfully conceived through fertility treatment.

“Many women are currently choosing to delay motherhood in the interests of personal and professional development,” the researchers write. “Although starting a family is a personal preference, free choices cannot be made without full knowledge of their consequences.”

Antibiotics to Avoid During Pregnancy

November 21st, 2008 admin Pregnancy 2 Comments

Any antibiotic, chemical or drug based substance consumed during pregnancy may reach the fetus (the baby inside the uterus) through maternal circulation. Antibiotics that are able to cross the placenta are potentially harmful and cause adverse fetal effects during pregnancy. The effects depend highly on the type and dose of antibiotic. Not only in pregnancy but certain antibiotics are able to pass from mother to her baby through breast milk.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) established five pregnancy categories to indicate the risk level of drugs to the fetus. The categories are A-B-C-D and X. The category A being the least dangerous during pregnancy and category X to be completely avoided

Category X: Highly dangerous
Adequate well-controlled or observational studies in animals or pregnant women have demonstrated positive evidence of fetal abnormalities or risks.

Quinolones: Sparfloxacin (1st trimester)

Category D
Adequate well-controlled or observational studies in pregnant women have demonstrated a risk to the fetus. However, the drug may be acceptable if needed in a life-threatening situation or serious disease for which safer drugs cannot be used or are ineffective.

Tetracycline: Tetracycline, Doxycycline, Oxytetracycline

Others: Naproxen (3rd trimester)

Category C
Animal studies have shown an adverse effect but there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women.

Quinolones: Cipro-floxacin, Levofloxacin, Moxifloxacin, Gatifloxacin, Ofloxacin, Sparfloxacin (2nd and 3rd trimester)

Macrolides: Clarithromycin

Aminoglycosides: Gentamicin

Others: Chloramphenicol

Category B
Animal studies have shown an adverse effect, but adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus in any trimester.

Penicillin: Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, Cloxacillin, Flucloxacillin

Cephalosporins: Cephalexin, Cefradine ( First generation); Cefuroxime ( Second Generation); Cefixime, Cefpodoxime, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone ( Third Generation)

Macrolides: Azithromycin, Erythromycin

Sulphonamides: Clotrimazole

Others: Metronidazoles, Naproxen (1st and 2nd trimester)

Category A: Least dangerous
Theoretically there are no antibiotics in this class for pregnancy.

Md Sojib Khan……