Smoking and Diabetes

June 5th, 2009 healthwiki

The harmful effects of smoking. Studies show that smokers are five times more likely than that of the nonsmokers to have gum disease. For smokers with diabetes, the risk is even greater. If you are a smoker, diabetic and age 45 or order, you are 20 times more likely than a person without these risk factors to get severe gum disease.

Smoking increases your risk of getting type 2 diabetes
Some recent research shows there is a significant relationship between diabetes and smoking. The more you smoke, the more chance you have of getting diabetes. If you smoke 16 to 25 cigarettes a day, your risk for type 2 diabetes is 3 times greater than a non-smoker. When you quite smoking, your risk decreases during the years that follow.

Smoking affects the way insulin works in your body
In type 2 diabetes, the body does not respond to insulin made by the pancreas. Insulin helps blood glucose enter into the cells for fuel. When you smoke, your body is less able to respond to insulin. When your body resists insulin, your glucose level increase in the blood. Resistance does not start to reverse until you do not smoke for 10 to 12 hours.

Smoking makes it harder to control your diabetes
Studies show that smokers have poorer glucose control than non-smokers do. Smokers who quit have the same blood glucose control as non-smokers. When you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, glucose control is very important. The HbA1c test checks how well you control your glucose level over 3 months. The goal is to keep your A1c at 7 percent or less. When you have diabetes and you smoke, your A1c level increases. If you quit smoking, your A1c level may decrease to the same level as a non-smokers.

Smoking increases your risk for getting other problems from diabetes
When you have diabetes and smoking habit, your chances are greater for getting other health problems form diabetes — complications. You can get serious eye problems, kidney problems, nerve problems, heart and blood vessel disease and so on.

Even for people who do not have diabetes but smoke, the risk of getting other health problems is greater. The more and the longer you smoke, the more your risk increases. Smoking and diabetes together greatly increase the danger of getting complications. To lower your risk, you must control your glucose levels and quit smoking. Diabetic people will be benefitted in many ways when they quit smoking.

Experts’ views
All smokers need stop smoking in a clear, strong and personalised manner. Ask every tobacco user if s/he is willing to make and attempt to stop smoking at this time (within the next 30 days for example).

Assist all people with smoking cessation. For those unwilling to attempt cessation at this time, stress the 5 R’s.

Relevance: provide individualised information on the hazards of smoking.

Risks: Emphasise the increased risks of heart disease and diabetes complications arising from the combination of smoking and diabetes.

Rewards: Review benefits of smoking cessation.

Roadblocks: Assure people of your willingness to assist in their efforts to stop smoking.

Repetition: Review people’s thoughts about cessation during their following visit.

Key messages
* Review major steps of smoking cessation

* Set a date to stop smoking

* Identify likely relapse triggers and make specific plans for coping with them before stopping smoking

* Assess for nicotine replacement therapy

* Discuss any concerns about weight gain and other concerns related to diabetes

* Make referral for additional smoking cessation support, prescribe nicotine replacement, provide self-help materials, or otherwise assist in a specific plan

* Arrange for ongoing contact

* Schedule follow-up contact either in person or via telephone

* Follow-up contact should occur soon after the date set to stop smoking, preferably within the first week.

Filed under: Diabetes

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